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无人机“黑飞”事件呈逐年上升趋势

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月18日 12:42:06
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(  最)(近)(,一)(起)(无)(人)(机)(逼)(停)(成)(都)(机)(场)(55个)(航)(班)(的)(新)(闻)(引)(起)(人)(们)(的)(关)(注)(,而)(据)(不)(完)(全)(统)(计)(,在)(过)(去)(3年)(时)(间)(里)(,仅)(京)(津)(冀)(地)(区)(就)(发)(生)(110起)(不)(明)(空)(情)(,违)(规)(飞)(行)(呈)(逐)(年)(上)(升)(趋)(势)(。事)(实)(上)(,无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”并)(非)(只)(有)(中)(国)(政)(府)(感)(到)(头)(疼)(,在)(无)(人)(机)(市)(场)(呈)(现)(井)(喷)(式)(发)(展)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(存)(在)(着)(飞)(行)(区)(域)(不)(明)(确)(、侵)(犯)(隐)(私)(、存)(安)(全)(隐)(患)(等)(问)(题)(,如)(何)(对)(无)(人)(机)(进)(行)(监)(管)(已)(成)(全)(球)(难)(题)(。
  今)(年)(5月)(22日)(,因)(一)(架)(无)(人)(机)(突)(然)(出)(现)(在)(成)(都)(机)(场)(东)(跑)(道)(航)(班)(起)(降)(空)(域)(,导)(致)(成)(都)(机)(场)(东)(跑)(道)(停)(航)(关)(闭)(1小)(时)(零)(20分)(钟)(,直)(接)(造)(成)(55个)(航)(班)(不)(能)(正)(常)(起)(降)(,其)(中)(进)(港)(26个)(,出)(港)(29个)(。公)(安)(部)(、中)(国)(民)(航)(局)(等)(有)(关)(部)(门)(要)(求)(尽)(快)(调)(查)(清)(楚)(此)(事)(,截)(至)(北)(京)(青)(年)(报)(记)(者)(发)(稿)(,当)(地)(警)(方)(还)(未)(找)(到)(肇)(事)(的)(黑)(飞)(无)(人)(机)(及)(机)(主)(。
  成)(都)(机)(场)(无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”逼)(停)(客)(机)(事)(件)(并)(非)(个)(案)(。据)(军)(队)(人)(大)(代)(表)(、中)(部)(战)(区)(副)(司)(令)(员)(兼)(中)(部)(战)(区)(空)(军)(司)(令)(员)(庄)(可)(柱)(在)(今)(年)(全)(国)(两)(会)(上)(透)(露)(,在)(过)(去)(3年)(时)(间)(里)(,京)(津)(冀)(地)(区)(共)(发)(生)(110起)(不)(明)(空)(情)(,违)(规)(飞)(行)(呈)(逐)(年)(上)(升)(趋)(势)(。事)(实)(上)(,并)(非)(只)(有)(中)(国)(政)(府)(感)(到)(头)(疼)(,在)(无)(人)(机)(市)(场)(呈)(现)(井)(喷)(式)(发)(展)(的)(同)(时)(,也)(频)(频)(曝)(出)(飞)(行)(区)(域)(不)(明)(确)(、侵)(犯)(隐)(私)(、存)(安)(全)(隐)(患)(等)(问)(题)(,如)(何)(对)(无)(人)(机)(进)(行)(监)(管)(已)(成)(全)(球)(难)(题)(。
  案)(例)(
  无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”惊)(动)(军)(方)(
  全)(国)(各)(地)(曾)(多)(次)(出)(现)(因)(航)(模)(和)(无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”引)(发)(的)(案)(件)(,但)(被)(告)(人)(基)(本)(上)(被)(处)(以)(罚)(款)(或)(者)(行)(政)(拘)(留)(的)(处)(罚)(。
  北)(京)(青)(年)(报)(记)(者)(梳)(理)(了)(近)(几)(年)(来)(发)(生)(的)(无)(人)(机)(肇)(事)(案)(件)(发)(现)(,全)(国)(各)(地)(曾)(多)(次)(出)(现)(因)(航)(模)(和)(无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”引)(发)(的)(案)(件)(,但)(被)(告)(人)(基)(本)(上)(被)(处)(以)(罚)(款)(或)(者)(行)(政)(拘)(留)(的)(处)(罚)(。
  最)(严)(重)(的)(一)(次)(是)(北)(京)(某)(航)(空)(科)(技)(公)(司)(无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”被)(追)(刑)(责)(事)(件)(。2013年)(12月)(8日)(,在)(平)(谷)(区)(马)(坊)(镇)(石)(佛)(寺)(村)(南)(公)(路)(上)(,该)(公)(司)(工)(作)(人)(员)(操)(纵)(燃)(油)(助)(力)(航)(模)(飞)(机)(升)(空)(进)(行)(地)(貌)(拍)(摄)(,被)(空)(军)(雷)(达)(发)(现)(为)(不)(明)(飞)(行)(物)(。其)(负)(责)(人)(郝)(某)(和)(3名)(员)(工)(被)(检)(方)(以)(“过)(失)(以)(危)(险)(方)(法)(危)(害)(公)(共)(安)(全)(罪)(”起)(诉)(至)(平)(谷)(区)(人)(民)(法)(院)(,最)(终)(被)(判)(刑)(责)(,成)(为)(国)(内)(无)(人)(机)(“肇)(事)(”标)(志)(性)(事)(件)(。
  据)(检)(方)(的)(起)(诉)(,当)(时)(无)(人)(机)(航)(拍)(,既)(未)(向)(民)(航)(部)(门)(申)(报)(任)(务)(,也)(未)(向)(军)(航)(管)(制)(部)(门)(申)(请)(飞)(行)(计)(划)(,导)(致)(北)(京)(首)(都)(国)(际)(机)(场)(15班)(次)(飞)(机)(延)(迟)(起)(飞)(4分)(钟)(,2班)(次)(实)(施)(空)(中)(避)(让)(,直)(接)(经)(济)(损)(失)(约)(10万)(元)(。
  另)(据)(了)(解)(,之)(所)(以)(很)(快)(抓)(获)(该)(无)(人)(机)(肇)(事)(者)(与)(军)(方)(介)(入)(有)(关)(,当)(时)(军)(方)(已)(派)(出)(两)(架)(歼)(击)(机)(待)(命)(升)(空)(,立)(即)(开)(启)(26台)(雷)(达)(,并)(出)(动)(两)(架)(直)(升)(机)(升)(空)(将)(其)(迫)(降)(。
  追)(访)(
  全)(球)(无)(人)(机)(肇)(事)(频)(发)(
  从)(全)(球)(角)(度)(来)(说)(,无)(人)(机)(肇)(事)(事)(件)(频)(发)(也)(是)(颇)(令)(人)(担)(忧)(。2015年)(7月)(20日)(,德)(国)(汉)(莎)(航)(空)(一)(架)(航)(班)(在)(华)(沙)(上)(空)(几)(乎)(撞)(上)(一)(架)(无)(人)(机)(。波)(兰)(航)(空)(安)(全)(部)(门)(称)(,20架)(飞)(机)(随)(即)(不)(得)(不)(改)(变)(飞)(行)(路)(线)(。世)(界)(上)(繁)(忙)(机)(场)(之)(一)(的)(伦)(敦)(希)(斯)(罗)(机)(场)(,也)(饱)(受)(无)(人)(机)(干)(扰)(。英)(国)(民)(航)(局)(表)(示)(,从)(2014年)(5月)(到)(2015年)(4月)(,英)(国)(民)(航)(局)(已)(经)(查)(到)(6起)(在)(英)(国)(各)(地)(机)(场)(发)(生)(的)(无)(人)(机)(和)(民)(航)(机)(差)(点)(擦)(撞)(的)(事)(件)(。而)(之)(前)(,2015年)(1月)(29日)(,无)(人)(机)(闯)(入)(了)(白)(宫)(,紧)(接)(着)(在)(2015年)(4月)(24日)(,有)(一)(架)(无)(人)(机)(在)(日)(本)(首)(相)(官)(邸)(坠)(落)(。
  2015年)(新)(西)(兰)(一)(名)(38岁)(男)(子)(西)(蒙)(罗)(在)(松)(树)(海)(滩)(发)(生)(火)(灾)(的)(时)(候)(操)(纵)(无)(人)(机)(。某)(一)(时)(刻)(,该)(无)(人)(机)(与)(消)(防)(救)(火)(直)(升)(机)(的)(距)(离)(仅)(为)(400英)(尺)(。后)(该)(男)(子)(因)(太)(靠)(近)(消)(防)(救)(火)(直)(升)(机)(空)(域)(飞)(行)(被)(起)(诉)(。据)(新)(西)(兰)(法)(律)(规)(定)(,入)(侵)(受)(管)(制)(的)(空)(域)(是)(违)(法)(行)(为)(,2016年)(1月)(,该)(无)(人)(机)(驾)(驶)(员)(依)(法)(被)(判)(有)(罪)(。
  应)(对)(
  美)(国)(计)(划)(使)(用)(“反)(无)(人)(机)(防)(卫)(系)(统)(”
  2015年)(7月)(22日)(,美)(国)(社)(交)(网)(站)(疯)(传)(的)(“武)(装)(无)(人)(机)(”视)(频)(也)(令)(美)(国)(民)(众)(不)(安)(。视)(频)(中)(,美)(国)(18岁)(大)(学)(生)(霍)(沃)(特)(改)(装)(了)(一)(架)(“四)(旋)(翼)(机)(”,机)(身)(前)(半)(部)(安)(装)(了)(一)(支)(半)(自)(动)(手)(枪)(,操)(控)(者)(可)(以)(通)(过)(遥)(控)(设)(备)(,在)(空)(中)(自)(由)(开)(火)(。
  据)(了)(解)(,由)(于)(无)(人)(机)(发)(展)(太)(快)(,美)(国)(FAA针)(对)(小)(型)(无)(人)(机)(规)(则)(的)(制)(定)(计)(划)(也)(迟)(迟)(没)(有)(出)(台)(。美)(国)(联)(邦)(航)(空)(管)(理)(局)((FAA)表)(示)(,每)(个)(月)(都)(会)(收)(到)(超)(过)(100份)(无)(人)(机)(与)(飞)(机)(过)(近)(的)(报)(告)(,鉴)(于)(无)(人)(机)(在)(美)(国)(机)(场)(出)(现)(得)(如)(此)(频)(繁)(,政)(府)(可)(能)(批)(准)(一)(种)(叫)(“反)(无)(人)(机)(防)(卫)(系)(统)(”(AUDS)尽)(快)(投)(入)(使)(用)(。
  美)(国)(联)(邦)(航)(空)(管)(理)(局)((FAA)将)(很)(快)(对)(其)(进)(行)(试)(验)(,来)(侦)(查)(和)(确)(认)(在)(机)(场)(附)(近)(有)(潜)(在)(威)(胁)(的)(无)(人)(机)(。FAA还)(未)(宣)(布)(将)(在)(哪)(一)(个)(机)(场)(应)(用)(这)(一)(系)(统)(,但)(他)(们)(保)(证)(AUDS将)(不)(会)(对)(机)(场)(已)(有)(的)(安)(全)(措)(施)(造)(成)(影)(响)(。该)(系)(统)(的)(原)(理)(是)(集)(合)(电)(子)(扫)(描)(雷)(达)(目)(标)(探)(测)(系)(统)(、光)(电)(跟)(踪)(与)(分)(类)(技)(术)(和)(射)(频)(干)(扰)(技)(术)(。AUDS使)(用)(热)(成)(像)(相)(机)(追)(踪)(无)(人)(机)(,再)(向)(“黑)(飞)(”的)(无)(人)(机)(发)(射)(高)(功)(率)(射)(频)(信)(号)(,阻)(断)(无)(人)(机)(通)(讯)(。只)(需)(要)(8秒)(的)(时)(间)(,AUDS系)(统)(便)(可)(以)(在)(大)(约)(6英)(里)((约)(9.66千)(米)()的)(范)(围)(内)(确)(认)(并)(击)(落)(无)(人)(机)(。
  监)(管)(
  民)(航)(局)(已)(运)(行)(无)(人)(机)(监)(管)(系)(统)(
  民)(航)(相)(关)(人)(士)(表)(示)(,虽)(然)(我)(国)(有)(《民)(用)(航)(空)(法)(》、《通)(用)(航)(空)(飞)(行)(管)(制)(条)(例)(》、《关)(于)(民)(用)(无)(人)(机)(管)(理)(有)(关)(问)(题)(的)(暂)(行)(规)(定)(》等)(多)(部)(法)(规)(,解)(决)(了)(无)(人)(机)(分)(类)(管)(理)(、空)(域)(管)(理)(、适)(航)(管)(理)(、驾)(驶)(员)(资)(质)(管)(理)(等)(问)(题)(。但)(由)(于)(法)(规)(条)(文)(原)(则)(性)(指)(导)(多)(,在)(适)(航)(认)(证)(、可)(用)(空)(域)(、空)(管)(规)(则)(、责)(任)(和)(监)(管)(主)(体)(等)(方)(面)(还)(需)(要)(进)(一)(步)(细)(化)(。
  2015年)(年)(底)(,美)(国)(联)(邦)(航)(空)(管)(理)(局)((FAA)要)(求)(对)(无)(人)(机)(进)(行)(注)(册)(。今)(年)(3月)(,中)(国)(民)(用)(航)(空)(局)(飞)(行)(标)(准)(司)(已)(经)(正)(式)(批)(准)(轻)(小)(型)(无)(人)(机)(监)(管)(系)(统)(“优)(云)((U-Cloud)”实)(施)(运)(行)(,批)(准)(文)(件)(有)(效)(期)(两)(年)(:自)(颁)(发)(日)(期)(2016年)(3月)(4日)(起)(至)(2018年)(3月)(3日)(。
  当)(时)(,中)(国)(航)(空)(器)(拥)(有)(者)(及)(驾)(驶)(员)(协)(会)(执)(行)(秘)(书)(长)(、无)(人)(机)(管)(理)(办)(公)(室)(主)(任)(柯)(玉)(宝)(表)(示)(,“优)(云)(”旨)(在)(解)(决)(无)(人)(机)(“黑)(飞)(”普)(遍)(、申)(报)(飞)(行)(计)(划)(不)(畅)(、空)(中)(监)(管)(难)(的)(问)(题)(。相)(信)(此)(次)(系)(统)(的)(正)(式)(运)(行)(将)(有)(助)(于)(进)(一)(步)(化)(解)(此)(类)(难)(题)(,同)(时)(也)(给)(无)(人)(机)(用)(户)(提)(供)(更)(多)(的)(增)(值)(服)(务)(。该)(系)(统)(是)(以)(云)(计)(算)(、大)(数)(据)(技)(术)(为)(依)(托)(,主)(要)(针)(对)(7(空)(机)(重)(量)()—150公)(斤)((起)(飞)(全)(重)()、飞)(行)(高)(度)(150米)(以)(下)(运)(行)(与)(作)(业)(的)(无)(人)(机)(。另)(外)(,7公)(斤)(以)(下)(,在)(视)(距)(外)(、人)(口)(稠)(密)(区)(、重)(点)(地)(域)(飞)(行)(的)(无)(人)(机)(也)(会)(被)(纳)(入)(监)(管)(范)(围)(。
  该)(系)(统)(可)(将)(无)(人)(机)(飞)(行)(时)(所)(有)(动)(作)(变)(化)(,包)(括)(航)(迹)(、高)(度)(、速)(度)(、位)(置)(、航)(向)(等)(实)(时)(纳)(入)(云)(数)(据)(库)(并)(存)(储)(。通)(过)(采)(集)(到)(的)(数)(据)(,系)(统)(会)(对)(升)(空)(的)(无)(人)(机)(进)(行)(监)(控)(和)(执)(法)(,并)(进)(行)(预)(警)(、安)(保)(工)(作)(等)(应)(用)(的)(开)(发)(。无)(人)(机)(接)(入)(此)(监)(管)(系)(统)(后)(可)(以)(实)(现)(飞)(行)(计)(划)(快)(速)(报)(批)(功)(能)(。
  建)(议)(
  我)(国)(应)(设)(立)(专)(门)(无)(人)(机)(监)(管)(机)(构)(
  无)(人)(机)(是)(否)(登)(录)(该)(系)(统)(并)(非)(强)(制)(性)(,存)(心)(“黑)(飞)(”的)(无)(人)(机)(很)(难)(纳)(入)(监)(管)(范)(畴)(。专)(业)(人)(士)(建)(议)(,我)(国)(应)(设)(立)(专)(门)(的)(无)(人)(机)(监)(管)(机)(构)(,建)(立)(统)(一)(的)(数)(据)(库)(对)(无)(人)(机)(销)(售)(进)(行)(登)(记)(,实)(行)(身)(份)(识)(别)(,建)(立)(追)(查)(制)(度)(,确)(保)(无)(人)(机)(的)(研)(制)(、生)(产)(、销)(售)(、使)(用)(和)(监)(管)(完)(全)(运)(行)(在)(法)(制)(轨)(道)(上)(。
  新)(闻)(内)(存)(
  消)(费)(级)(无)(人)(机)(成)(旅)(游)(达)(人)(标)(配)(
  据)(互)(联)(网)(研)(究)(机)(构)(艾)(瑞)(咨)(询)(最)(新)(发)(布)(的)(《2016年)(中)(国)(无)(人)(机)(行)(业)(研)(究)(报)(告)(》,我)(国)(小)(型)(民)(用)(无)(人)(机)(市)(场)(进)(入)(快)(速)(成)(长)(期)(,预)(计)(2025年)(,国)(内)(无)(人)(机)(市)(场)(总)(规)(模)(将)(达)(到)(750亿)(元)(人)(民)(币)(。
  无)(人)(机)(的)(价)(值)(在)(于)(替)(代)(人)(类)(完)(成)(空)(中)(作)(业)(,并)(且)(能)(够)(形)(成)(空)(中)(平)(台)(,结)(合)(其)(他)(部)(件)(扩)(展)(应)(用)(。目)(前)(,无)(人)(机)(可)(以)(分)(为)(消)(费)(级)(无)(人)(机)(和)(工)(业)(无)(人)(机)(,在)(消)(费)(级)(无)(人)(机)(方)(面)(,航)(拍)(功)(能)(使)(用)(最)(广)(;在)(工)(业)(无)(人)(机)(方)(面)(,喷)(洒)(农)(药)(、气)(象)(监)(测)(、物)(流)(配)(送)(等)(领)(域)(是)(主)(要)(应)(用)(领)(域)(。
  报)(告)(指)(出)(,预)(计)(2025年)(,航)(拍)(、农)(林)(、安)(防)(等)(将)(成)(为)(无)(人)(机)(应)(用)(的)(热)(门)(领)(域)(。在)(750亿)(元)(的)(市)(场)(规)(模)(中)(,航)(拍)(约)(为)(300亿)(,农)(林)(植)(保)(约)(为)(200亿)(,安)(防)(市)(场)(约)(为)(150亿)(,电)(力)(巡)(检)(约)(为)(50亿)(。
  消)(费)(级)(无)(人)(机)(航)(拍)(已)(成)(许)(多)(旅)(游)(达)(人)(的)(标)(配)(。有)(些)(入)(门)(级)(产)(品)(只)(需)(2000元)(到)(上)(万)(元)(不)(等)(,可)(以)(在)(电)(商)(平)(台)(、航)(模)(店)(或)(小)(商)(品)(市)(场)(买)(到)(。这)(些)(入)(门)(级)(产)(品)(重)(量)(都)(轻)(于)(7公)(斤)(,按)(照)(我)(国)(民)(航)(局)(的)(相)(关)(规)(定)(,操)(作)(人)(员)(不)(需)(要)(持)(证)(也)(可)(以)(。旅)(游)(达)(人)(张)(先)(生)(告)(诉)(北)(京)(青)(年)(报)(记)(者)(:“把)(花)(5000元)(左)(右)(购)(置)(的)(无)(人)(机)(装)(到)(摄)(影)(包)(里)(,到)(欧)(洲)(、中)(东)(等)(地)(旅)(游)(一)(路)(都)(畅)(通)(无)(阻)(,机)(场)(对)(无)(人)(机)(并)(没)(有)(任)(何)(限)(制)(,可)(以)(在)(全)(世)(界)(记)(录)(下)(自)(己)(的)(足)(迹)(。”
  无)(人)(机)(市)(场)(如)(此)(火)(爆)(,新)(的)(厂)(商)(纷)(纷)(加)(入)(竞)(争)(,包)(括)(大)(疆)(、零)(度)(、Lily、Zano、美)(图)(“手)(机)(航)(拍)(神)(器)(”、腾)(讯)(DOBBY、乐)(视)(无)(人)(机)(等)(。上)(个)(月)(,小)(米)(发)(布)(了)(一)(款)(入)(门)(级)(无)(人)(机)(产)(品)(,尽)(管)(没)(有)(像)(业)(界)(传)(说)(的)(做)(千)(元)(无)(人)(机)(,但)(3000元)(的)(价)(格)(仍)(然)(低)(于)(大)(疆)(同)(级)(别)(产)(品)(。文)(/本)(报)(记)(者)(蔺)(丽)(爽)(
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