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冯唐的语言是种时代症候

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年05月23日 06:46:06
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(  一)(种)(说)(法)(  泰)(戈)(尔)(的)(诗)(意)(在)(冯)(唐)(这)(里)(,已)(经)(发)(生)(了)(根)(本)(的)(蜕)(变)(?这)(仅)(仅)(只)(是)(冯)(唐)(个)(人)(的)(错)(吗)(?还)(是)(,有)(什)(么)(社)(会)(的)(和)(文)(化)(的)(原)(因)(,使)(我)(们)(已)(经)(将)(那)(个)(泰)(戈)(尔)(式)(的)(诗)(意)(的)(存)(在)(远)(远)(地)(抛)(弃)(?  《飞)(鸟)(集)(》的)(“神)(翻)(译)(”引)(起)(了)(热)(烈)(的)(讨)(论)(。有)(说)(“最)(佳)(”的)(,也)(有)(坚)(决)(要)(求)(“下)(架)(”的)(。这)(都)(似)(乎)(有)(些)(极)(端)(。  事)(实)(上)(,这)(与)(其)(说)(是)(一)(个)(需)(要)(在)(翻)(译)(学)(意)(义)(上)(加)(以)(辨)(析)(的)(问)(题)(,不)(如)(说)(它)(折)(射)(了)(某)(种)(时)(代)(症)(候)(。  对)(比)(郑)(振)(铎)(与)(冯)(唐)(的)(译)(文)(,对)(比)(他)(们)(对)(待)(诗)(人)(泰)(戈)(尔)(的)(态)(度)(,不)(仅)(可)(以)(看)(出)(译)(者)(与)(作)(者)(之)(间)(关)(系)(的)(极)(大)(变)(化)(;而)(且)(,更)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,也)(可)(以)(看)(出)(汉)(语)(语)(言)(生)(态)(内)(在)(蜕)(变)(与)(颓)(败)(的)(端)(倪)(——虽)(然)(只)(是)(端)(倪)(。  无)(论)(是)(“大)(千)(世)(界)(在)(情)(人)(面)(前)(解)(开)(裤)(裆)(/绵)(长)(如)(舌)(吻)(/纤)(细)(如)(诗)(行)(”,还)(是)(“有)(了)(绿)(草)(/大)(地)(变)(得)(很)(骚)(”……要)(说)(这)(些)(文)(字)(是)(对)(泰)(戈)(尔)(诗)(歌)(的)(翻)(译)(,恐)(怕)(有)(点)(牛)(头)(不)(对)(马)(嘴)(。没)(有)(任)(何)(一)(个)(有)(基)(本)(英)(语)(水)(平)(的)(人)(,会)(认)(为)(“mask”与)(“裤)(裆)(”有)(什)(么)(对)(应)(关)(系)(,而)(“hospitable”居)(然)(会)(是)(“骚)(”的)(同)(义)(词)(。聪)(明)(如)(冯)(唐)(,大)(概)(更)(不)(至)(于)(有)(这)(种)(“笔)(误)(”。  我)(们)(要)(问)(的)(是)(,为)(什)(么)(泰)(戈)(尔)(清)(新)(、隽)(永)(而)(“纯)(情)(”的)(诗)(句)(,在)(郑)(振)(铎)(那)(里)(,还)(是)(“世)(界)(上)(的)(一)(队)(小)(小)(的)(漂)(泊)(者)(呀)(/请)(留)(下)(了)(你)(们)(的)(足)(印)(在)(我)(的)(文)(字)(里)(”,而)(在)(冯)(译)(中)(就)(变)(成)(了)(“现)(世)(里)(孤)(孤)(单)(单)(的)(小)(混)(混)(啊)(/混)(到)(我)(的)(文)(字)(里)(留)(下)(你)(们)(的)(痕)(迹)(吧)(”。为)(什)(么)(冯)(译)(中)(充)(满)(调)(侃)(意)(味)(的)(“白)(日)(将)(尽)(/夜)(晚)(呢)(喃)(/”“我)(是)(死)(啊)(/我)(是)(你)(妈)(/我)(会)(给)(你)(新)(生)(哒)(”,在)(郑)(振)(铎)(那)(里)(却)(是)(“也)(与)(逝)(去)(的)(日)(子)(接)(吻)(/轻)(轻)(地)(在)(他)(耳)(旁)(说)(道)(:我)(是)(死)(,是)(你)(的)(母)(亲)(。/我)(就)(要)(给)(你)(新)(的)(生)(命)(”?而)(细)(心)(的)(读)(者)(甚)(至)(会)(看)(到)(更)(微)(妙)(的)(不)(同)(,“Dreamisawifewhomusttalk/Sleepisahusbandwhosilentlysuffers”,郑)(译)(为)(:“梦)(是)(一)(个)(一)(定)(要)(谈)(话)(的)(妻)(子)(/睡)(眠)(是)(一)(个)(默)(默)(忍)(受)(的)(丈)(夫)(”;冯)(译)(则)(为)(:“梦)(幻)(是)(一)(个)(不)(得)(不)(唠)(叨)(的)(老)(婆)(/睡)(眠)(是)(一)(个)(默)(默)(忍)(受)(着)(的)(老)(公)(”。  如)(果)(说)(,老)(婆)(、老)(公)(是)(更)(日)(常)(、更)(接)(近)(网)(络)(表)(达)(的)(市)(井)(语)(言)(的)(话)(,那)(么)(,比)(较)(而)(言)(,妻)(子)(和)(丈)(夫)(则)(是)(更)(书)(面)(、更)(文)(人)(化)(、因)(而)(更)(力)(求)(雅)(驯)(的)(表)(达)(。谈)(话)(与)(唠)(叨)(,前)(者)(是)(中)(性)(的)(乃)(至)(是)(包)(含)(着)(某)(种)(对)(话)(愿)(望)(的)(,后)(者)(则)(毫)(无)(疑)(问)(传)(达)(的)(是)(某)(种)(厌)(倦)(,或)(者)(说)(得)(哲)(学)(一)(点)(,是)(海)(德)(格)(尔)(意)(义)(上)(的)(“烦)((Sorge)”。至)(于)(梦)(变)(成)(了)(梦)(幻)(,这)(个)(“幻)(”字)(的)(失)(落)(与)(虚)(无)(感)(,也)(是)(显)(而)(易)(见)(的)(。  至)(少)(,我)(们)(不)(能)(期)(望)(甚)(或)(强)(求)(,一)(个)(在)(内)(心)(已)(然)(消)(解)(了)(梦)(想)(的)(人)(,不)(去)(把)(梦)(仅)(仅)(理)(解)(为)(梦)(幻)(。至)(少)(,小)(混)(混)(这)(个)(词)(,是)(对)(我)(们)(身)(边)(多)(数)(人)(乃)(至)(我)(们)(自)(己)(生)(存)(状)(况)(的)(更)(准)(确)(描)(述)(,而)(不)(是)(那)(多)(少)(富)(于)(诗)(意)(的)(另)(一)(个)(词)(:漂)(泊)(者)(。漂)(泊)(者)(,是)(这)(个)(世)(界)(的)(旁)(观)(者)(,却)(也)(是)(清)(醒)(的)(批)(判)(者)(,而)(孤)(孤)(单)(单)(的)(小)(混)(混)(和)(志)(得)(意)(满)(的)(大)(混)(混)(,则)(只)(能)(是)(与)(世)(推)(移)(的)(随)(大)(溜)(者)(或)(食)(利)(者)(。  至)(于)(裤)(裆)(和)(骚)(,这)(两)(个)(词)(其)(实)(也)(没)(有)(什)(么)(不)(可)(以)(登)(大)(雅)(之)(堂)(的)(。我)(们)(不)(是)(甚)(至)(已)(经)(毫)(无)(忌)(讳)(地)(直)(接)(点)(出)(男)(性)(生)(殖)(器)(,来)(称)(呼)(某)(个)(弱)(势)(群)(体)(为)(“丝)(”吗)(?看)(过)(《十)(日)(谈)(》或)(《金)(瓶)(梅)(》,甚)(至)(“更)(高)(级)(别)(”性)(爱)(文)(学)(与)(电)(影)(的)(人)(,又)(有)(什)(么)(必)(要)(为)(这)(两)(个)(词)(所)(可)(能)(引)(起)(的)(少)(儿)(不)(宜)(而)(惊)(异)(呢)(。我)(们)(需)(要)(真)(正)(引)(起)(注)(意)(的)(依)(然)(还)(是)(,为)(什)(么)(郑)(振)(铎)(会)(忠)(实)(地)(翻)(译)(泰)(戈)(尔)(?为)(什)(么)(在)(西)(谛)(先)(生)(那)(里)(,泰)(戈)(尔)(依)(然)(还)(可)(以)(保)(留)(他)(的)(优)(雅)(、深)(邃)(乃)(至)(高)(贵)(,而)(在)(冯)(唐)(这)(里)(,这)(一)(切)(已)(经)(发)(生)(了)(根)(本)(的)(蜕)(变)(?这)(仅)(仅)(只)(是)(冯)(唐)(个)(人)(的)(错)(吗)(?还)(是)(,有)(什)(么)(社)(会)(的)(和)(文)(化)(的)(原)(因)(,使)(我)(们)(已)(经)(将)(那)(个)(泰)(戈)(尔)(式)(的)(诗)(意)(的)(存)(在)(远)(远)(地)(抛)(弃)(?我)(们)(已)(经)(看)(不)(到)(母)(爱)(与)(童)(心)(,不)(再)(祈)(求)(拥)(有)(对)(于)(未)(来)(的)(梦)(想)(与)(期)(冀)(?在)(我)(们)(的)(眼)(中)(只)(剩)(下)(了)(可)(怜)(的)(“裤)(裆)(”、“骚)(”、“小)(混)(混)(”、“唠)(叨)(”与)(“烦)(”甚)(至)(“梦)(幻)(”吗)(?  冯)(唐)(的)(翻)(译)(,难)(道)(在)(某)(种)(意)(义)(上)(,不)(仅)(暴)(露)(了)(他)(自)(己)(精)(神)(世)(界)(的)(幽)(微)(秘)(密)(,而)(且)(暴)(露)(了)(我)(们)(精)(神)(文)(化)(中)(不)(容)(回)(避)(的)(严)(峻)(现)(实)(?  如)(果)(真)(是)(如)(此)(,我)(们)(或)(许)(倒)(要)(感)(谢)(冯)(唐)(的)(“坦)(诚)(”与)(商)(业)(化)(的)(“聪)(明)(”,因)(为)(他)(说)(出)(了)(——也)(许)(是)(下)(意)(识)(地)(说)(出)(了)(——我)(们)(本)(不)(知)(道)(该)(怎)(么)(说)(出)(的)(真)(实)(。  乔)(治)(斯)(坦)(纳)(在)(《语)(言)(与)(沉)(默)(》一)(书)(中)(曾)(经)(用)(数)(百)(页)(的)(文)(字)(证)(明)(一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(结)(论)(:语)(言)(的)(滥)(用)(与)(颓)(败)(,事)(实)(上)(乃)(是)(某)(种)(文)(明)(与)(文)(化)(颓)(败)(的)(表)(征)(。但)(愿)(我)(们)(不)(要)(认)(为)(他)(是)(危)(言)(耸)(听)(。  张)(辉)((北)(京)(大)(学)(中)(国)(语)(言)(文)(学)(系)(教)(授)()
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