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现金贷狂飙:互联网金融最热“风口”的赚钱秘密

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年08月19日 22:17:44
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(  (图)(片)(来)(源)(:全)(景)(视)(觉)()
  经)(济)(观)(察)(报)(穆)(岳)(古)(/文)(避)(开)(了)(4月)(份)(银)(监)(会)(整)(顿)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(监)(管)(新)(政)(威)(力)(后)(,近)(期)(,现)(金)(贷)(行)(业)(又)(重)(新)(开)(启)(了)(狂)(飙)(的)(模)(式)(。多)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(人)(士)(向)(记)(者)(证)(实)(,4月)(份)(银)(监)(会)(出)(台)(整)(顿)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(政)(策)(后)(,都)(放)(缓)(了)(放)(款)(的)(节)(奏)(,但)(随)(着)(监)(管)(政)(策)(阴)(云)(的)(逐)(渐)(散)(去)(,近)(期)(开)(始)(重)(新)(放)(量)(。
  在)(千)(家)(P2P平)(台)(涌)(现)(百)(舸)(争)(流)(的)(“奇)(观)(”之)(后)(,互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(领)(域)(正)(在)(上)(演)(着)(另)(一)(幕)(,自)(去)(年)(开)(始)(,成)(千)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(如)(雨)(后)(春)(笋)(般)(崛)(地)(而)(起)(。2017年)(4月)(,银)(监)(会)(一)(纸)(整)(顿)(通)(知)(,现)(金)(贷)(自)(查)(、整)(顿)(风)(声)(开)(始)(,各)(大)(平)(台)(开)(始)(尽)(量)(销)(声)(匿)(迹)(,而)(在)(这)(低)(调)(的)(背)(后)(,却)(又)(是)(另)(一)(片)(繁)(荣)(。这)(条)(产)(业)(链)(上)(各)(个)(参)(与)(者)(赚)(得)(盆)(满)(钵)(满)(,无)(论)(是)(直)(接)(开)(展)(现)(金)(贷)(业)(务)(的)(,还)(是)(流)(量)(分)(发)(、征)(信)(供)(应)(商)(、催)(收)(平)(台)(等)(等)(都)(尝)(到)(了)(现)(金)(贷)(市)(场)(巨)(大)(的)(甜)(头)(。
  但)(现)(金)(贷)(面)(临)(的)(争)(议)(却)(始)(终)(未)(能)(消)(退)(。
  低)(调)(的)(狂)(飙)(
  互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(领)(域)(的)(创)(业)(公)(司)(51金)(控)(或)(很)(快)(将)(敲)(定)(一)(笔)(数)(千)(万)(元)(的)(融)(资)(。这)(家)(公)(司)(的)(创)(始)(人)(刘)(思)(宇)(对)(此)(信)(心)(满)(满)(,他)(说)(这)(些)(机)(构)(都)(是)(洽)(谈)(当)(天)(就)(已)(经)(定)(下)(了)(投)(资)(意)(向)(。
  刘)(思)(宇)(最)(初)(做)(的)(一)(款)(产)(品)(叫)(51理)(财)(,是)(为)(用)(户)(提)(供)(理)(财)(产)(品)(筛)(选)(服)(务)(的)(平)(台)(,在)(这)(个)(平)(台)(上)(也)(有)(一)(个)(提)(供)(贷)(款)(产)(品)(导)(航)(的)(窗)(口)(。从)(去)(年)(下)(半)(年)(开)(始)(,他)(发)(现)(这)(个)(贷)(款)(服)(务)(的)(窗)(口)(流)(量)(增)(长)(非)(常)(迅)(速)(,他)(意)(识)(到)(这)(是)(个)(机)(会)(,于)(是)(在)(去)(年)(年)(底)(就)(将)(贷)(款)(产)(品)(导)(航)(独)(立)(出)(来)(新)(做)(了)(一)(款)(叫)(贷)(款)(钱)(包)(的)(APP,后)(端)(连)(接)(的)(则)(是)(近)(百)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(。
  贷)(款)(钱)(包)(做)(的)(事)(很)(简)(单)(,就)(是)(帮)(助)(用)(户)(一)(次)(性)(去)(多)(家)(平)(台)(申)(请)(借)(款)(,避)(免)(了)(用)(户)(需)(要)(自)(己)(到)(各)(个)(平)(台)(去)(申)(请)(的)(繁)(琐)(流)(程)(。目)(前)(,贷)(款)(钱)(包)(的)(用)(户)(规)(模)(已)(超)(过)(百)(万)(,每)(日)(新)(增)(用)(户)(超)(过)(1万)(名)(,更)(为)(重)(要)(的)(是)(,这)(业)(务)(的)(现)(金)(流)(颇)(为)(可)(观)(。但)(刘)(思)(宇)(仍)(觉)(得)(还)(能)(增)(长)(更)(快)(,为)(此)(,他)(在)(微)(信)(朋)(友)(圈)(留)(言)(寻)(找)(更)(多)(的)(流)(量)(入)(口)(,并)(称)(“投)(放)(的)(预)(算)(额)(度)(不)(设)(限)(”,他)(承)(认)(,他)(赶)(上)(了)(一)(个)(当)(下)(最)(热)(的)(一)(个)(“风)(口)(”——现)(金)(贷)(。
  业)(界)(所)(谓)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(主)(要)(是)(指)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(平)(台)(提)(供)(的)(一)(种)(无)(担)(保)(、无)(抵)(押)(、无)(场)(景)(的)(信)(用)(贷)(款)(产)(品)(,现)(金)(贷)(具)(有)(金)(额)(小)(、期)(限)(短)(、频)(率)(高)(、利)(率)(高)(、没)(有)(明)(确)(用)(途)(等)(特)(点)(。
  现)(金)(贷)(并)(不)(是)(一)(门)(新)(鲜)(的)(生)(意)(,从)(2014年)(前)(后)(,国)(内)(就)(有)(一)(批)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(公)(司)(开)(始)(提)(供)(类)(似)(的)(产)(品)(,而)(这)(一)(业)(务)(的)(爆)(发)(,则)(是)(到)(了)(2016年)(。从)(额)(度)(上)(看)(,国)(内)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(一)(般)(以)(一)(千)(到)(两)(千)(元)(左)(右)(,但)(也)(有)(少)(的)(只)(有)(三)(五)(百)(元)(,多)(的)(则)(能)(借)(到)(数)(千)(元)(。
  令)(外)(界)(惊)(讶)(的)(并)(不)(仅)(仅)(只)(有)(市)(场)(规)(模)(的)(飙)(升)(,更)(令)(人)(感)(叹)(的)(是)(这)(背)(后)(惊)(人)(的)(赚)(钱)(效)(应)(,这)(是)(其)(他)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(平)(台)(无)(法)(企)(及)(的)(。
  2016年)(全)(年)(,宜)(人)(贷)(净)(收)(入)(32.38亿)(人)(民)(币)((4.66亿)(美)(元)(),较)(2015年)(全)(年)(增)(长)(146%;净)(利)(润)(11.16亿)(人)(民)(币)((1.61亿)(美)(元)(),较)(2015年)(全)(年)(增)(长)(305%。二)(三)(四)(五)(财)(报)(显)(示)(,运)(营)(“2345贷)(款)(王)(”的)(金)(融)(科)(技)(子)(公)(司)(去)(年)(实)(现)(归)(属)(于)(母)(公)(司)(所)(有)(者)(的)(净)(利)(润)(为)(1.1亿)(元)(。不)(过)(,信)(而)(富)(的)(业)(绩)(则)(并)(不)(理)(想)(,但)(公)(司)(称)(其)(目)(前)(采)(取)(的)(是)(“战)(略)(性)(亏)(损)(”状)(态)(。
  除)(了)(这)(些)(已)(经)(上)(市)(平)(台)(靓)(丽)(的)(业)(绩)(外)(,一)(大)(批)(未)(上)(市)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(也)(在)(过)(去)(这)(一)(年)(多)(时)(间)(中)(实)(现)(了)(一)(路)(狂)(飙)(,并)(赚)(得)(盆)(满)(钵)(满)(。
  如)(运)(营)(闪)(电)(贷)(款)(这)(一)(现)(金)(贷)(产)(品)(的)(掌)(众)(金)(服)(在)(今)(年)(5月)(底)(时)(,累)(计)(放)(款)(金)(额)(已)(经)(超)(过)(250亿)(元)(,注)(册)(用)(户)(超)(过)(1500万)(人)(。
  而)(上)(海)(的)(一)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(负)(责)(人)(透)(露)(,该)(公)(司)(也)(累)(计)(放)(款)(金)(额)(10亿)(元)(,今)(年)(上)(半)(年)(盈)(利)(约)(3000-4000万)(元)(。
  网)(贷)(之)(家)(此)(前)(的)(一)(份)(研)(究)(报)(告)(,选)(择)(了)(从)(网)(贷)(平)(台)(短)(期)(现)(金)(贷)(业)(务)(增)(长)(情)(况)(来)(估)(测)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(增)(长)(速)(度)(,其)(过)(去)(一)(年)(增)(幅)(达)(到)(约)(12倍)(,确)(实)(呈)(现)(爆)(发)(式)(增)(长)(。而)(根)(据)(其)(估)(测)(,目)(前)(整)(个)(现)(金)(贷)(行)(业)(的)(规)(模)(约)(在)(6000到)(10000亿)(元)(。“现)(在)(做)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(,基)(本)(上)(没)(有)(谁)(亏)(过)(钱)(吧)(?一)(个)(新)(的)(平)(台)(快)(的)(话)(几)(个)(月)(时)(间)(就)(能)(实)(现)(盈)(利)(了)(。”一)(位)(关)(注)(这)(一)(行)(业)(的)(创)(投)(人)(士)(透)(露)(,在)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(风)(控)(模)(型)(跑)(通)(进)(入)(正)(常)(运)(营)(状)(态)(后)(,按)(行)(业)(平)(均)(水)(平)(算)(,一)(个)(平)(台)(单)(月)(的)(利)(润)(大)(概)(是)(当)(月)(放)(款)(额)(的)(3%-4%左)(右)(,而)(现)(在)(行)(业)(里)(单)(月)(放)(款)(规)(模)(超)(过)(1亿)(元)(的)(平)(台)(比)(比)(皆)(是)(。“现)(在)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(中)(一)(个)(月)(赚)(三)(四)(千)(万)(的)(就)(很)(多)(,我)(接)(触)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(中)(也)(已)(经)(有)(估)(值)(超)(过)(50亿)(元)(的)(了)(。”刘)(思)(宇)(称)(。
  与)(行)(业)(爆)(发)(性)(增)(长)(相)(对)(应)(的)(是)(,正)(赶)(上)(行)(业)(红)(利)(期)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(们)(却)(异)(乎)(寻)(常)(的)(都)(选)(择)(了)(低)(调)(。记)(者)(曾)(联)(系)(了)(北)(京)(、上)(海)(两)(地)(的)(多)(家)(知)(名)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(采)(访)(,但)(绝)(大)(部)(分)(均)(告)(知)(不)(方)(便)(接)(受)(采)(访)(。
  赚)(钱)(的)(秘)(密)(
  从)(2013年)(起)(,我)(国)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(产)(业)(开)(始)(快)(速)(发)(展)(,一)(时)(间)(上)(千)(家)(P2P平)(台)(涌)(现)(,但)(大)(部)(分)(的)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(平)(台)(都)(仍)(然)(只)(是)(叫)(好)(不)(叫)(座)(,鲜)(有)(盈)(利)(,而)(唯)(独)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(除)(外)(。“现)(金)(贷)(是)(难)(得)(的)(自)(带)(现)(金)(流)(的)(互)(联)(网)(项)(目)(。”上)(述)(关)(注)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(创)(投)(人)(士)(称)(。
  如)(今)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(都)(以)(智)(能)(信)(贷)(服)(务)(平)(台)(自)(称)(,不)(过)(,就)(其)(本)(质)(来)(看)(商)(业)(模)(式)(非)(常)(明)(了)(,即)(服)(务)(传)(统)(金)(融)(体)(系)(未)(能)(覆)(盖)(的)(人)(群)(,依)(靠)(高)(息)(费)(率)(来)(覆)(盖)(高)(坏)(账)(率)(从)(而)(获)(得)(收)(益)(。
  从)(流)(程)(上)(看)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(业)(务)(主)(要)(分)(为)(获)(客)(、风)(控)(、放)(贷)(、贷)(后)(等)(几)(个)(流)(程)(。而)(和)(传)(统)(的)(金)(融)(服)(务)(和)(其)(他)(大)(额)(借)(款)(的)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(项)(目)(相)(比)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(在)(获)(客)(和)(风)(控)(方)(面)(几)(乎)(都)(实)(现)(了)(全)(部)(线)(上)(运)(作)(。
  北)(京)(一)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(内)(部)(在)(进)(行)(用)(户)(画)(像)(分)(析)(时)(便)(认)(为)(,现)(金)(贷)(的)(用)(户)(人)(群)(特)(征)(包)(括)(:80后)(、90后)(的)(男)(性)(用)(户)(为)(主)(,区)(域)(集)(中)(在)(三)(、四)(线)(城)(市)(,多)(为)(蓝)(领)(人)(群)(,他)(们)(有)(一)(定)(的)(工)(作)(收)(入)(,并)(没)(有)(很)(好)(的)(信)(用)(记)(录)(,能)(获)(得)(金)(融)(服)(务)(的)(渠)(道)(非)(常)(有)(限)(,他)(们)(借)(款)(的)(目)(的)(往)(往)(都)(是)(用)(以)(满)(足)(应)(急)(之)(需)(以)(及)(日)(常)(消)(费)(。
  这)(样)(的)(目)(标)(群)(体)(同)(样)(也)(是)(移)(动)(互)(联)(网)(的)(活)(跃)(人)(群)(,主)(要)(线)(上)(流)(量)(平)(台)(已)(能)(实)(现)(无)(死)(角)(的)(覆)(盖)(,为)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(通)(过)(线)(上)(获)(得)(用)(户)(提)(供)(了)(条)(件)(。
  而)(与)(传)(统)(风)(控)(和)(信)(审)(方)(式)(不)(同)(的)(是)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(几)(乎)(都)(实)(现)(了)(全)(自)(动)(的)(审)(核)(,“初)(次)(申)(请)(分)(钟)(级)(审)(核)(,再)(次)(申)(请)(秒)(级)(审)(核)(”几)(乎)(已)(经)(成)(为)(行)(业)(的)(标)(配)(。如)(今)(,对)(绝)(大)(部)(分)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(来)(说)(,用)(户)(的)(借)(款)(金)(额)(只)(有)(一)(两)(千)(元)(时)(,基)(本)(上)(就)(只)(需)(要)(提)(供)(一)(个)(身)(份)(证)(和)(手)(机)(号)(即)(可)(申)(请)(。这)(源)(于)(大)(数)(据)(及)(征)(信)(产)(业)(在)(近)(两)(年)(的)(快)(速)(发)(展)(。
  曾)(在)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(任)(职)(的)(现)(易)(通)(贷)(CRO秦)(天)(称)(,针)(对)(小)(额)(借)(款)(的)(纯)(线)(上)(审)(贷)(技)(术)(已)(经)(较)(为)(成)(熟)(,通)(过)(用)(户)(授)(权)(后)(去)(获)(取)(用)(户)(的)(手)(机)(通)(讯)(录)(信)(息)(、通)(话)(记)(录)(、社)(保)(等)(信)(息)(,通)(过)(这)(些)(海)(量)(的)(信)(息)(来)(刻)(画)(每)(个)(用)(户)(的)(形)(象)(,计)(算)(他)(的)(违)(约)(概)(率)(是)(多)(少)(,再)(在)(这)(基)(础)(上)(进)(行)(不)(同)(的)(风)(险)(定)(价)(。
  不)(过)(,对)(于)(正)(处)(于)(野)(蛮)(生)(产)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(来)(说)(,进)(行)(差)(异)(化)(风)(险)(定)(价)(的)(仍)(然)(只)(是)(少)(数)(平)(台)(,大)(部)(分)(都)(还)(停)(留)(在)(粗)(放)(式)(发)(展)(阶)(段)(,定)(价)(相)(对)(简)(单)(粗)(暴)(。
  现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(提)(供)(借)(款)(的)(成)(本)(往)(往)(包)(括)(借)(款)(利)(息)(和)(多)(种)(申)(请)(费)(用)(,各)(个)(平)(台)(的)(综)(合)(借)(款)(成)(本)(高)(低)(不)(相)(同)(,差)(异)(巨)(大)(,大)(多)(数)(平)(台)(的)(借)(款)(成)(本)(转)(换)(成)(年)(化)(计)(算)(都)(超)(过)(了)(100%,综)(合)(息)(费)(率)(超)(过)(300%的)(也)(并)(非)(少)(数)(。但)(由)(于)(借)(款)(金)(额)(比)(较)(小)(且)(时)(间)(很)(短)(,用)(户)(所)(需)(要)(支)(出)(的)(成)(本)(的)(绝)(对)(值)(则)(并)(不)(算)(高)(,若)(以)(借)(款)(1000元)(为)(例)(,若)(按)(照)(总)(成)(本)(年)(化)(200%计)(算)(,则)(借)(款)(半)(个)(月)(需)(要)(付)(出)(的)(成)(本)(是)(80余)(元)(,这)(对)(于)(有)(应)(急)(借)(款)(需)(求)(的)(人)(来)(说)(,这)(仍)(不)(失)(为)(一)(种)(可)(考)(虑)(的)(选)(择)(。
  显)(而)(易)(见)(的)(是)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(息)(费)(率)(高)(的)(好)(处)(是)(抗)(风)(险)(能)(力)(强)(,平)(台)(对)(坏)(账)(的)(容)(忍)(度)(也)(就)(高)(了)(很)(多)(。
  据)(记)(者)(了)(解)(,现)(金)(贷)(行)(业)(往)(往)(用)(逾)(期)(三)(月)(的)(比)(率)(作)(为)(一)(个)(衡)(量)(的)(指)(标)(,而)(这)(一)(数)(字)(一)(般)(在)(3-5%左)(右)(,但)(也)(有)(部)(分)(平)(台)(这)(一)(数)(字)(高)(达)(8%以)(上)(。但)(即)(便)(如)(此)(,这)(样)(的)(坏)(账)(率)(亦)(能)(够)(让)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(可)(以)(获)(得)(可)(观)(的)(收)(益)(。
  对)(于)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(来)(说)(,最)(大)(风)(险)(来)(自)(于)(团)(伙)(欺)(诈)(。事)(实)(上)(,潜)(藏)(在)(暗)(处)(的)(有)(一)(群)(专)(门)(的)(诈)(骗)(团)(伙)(,通)(过)(他)(人)(的)(身)(份)(证)(明)(到)(各)(个)(平)(台)(去)(申)(请)(借)(款)(,一)(旦)(获)(得)(借)(款)(便)(再)(也)(不)(会)(还)(钱)(了)(。
  剔)(除)(掉)(欺)(诈)(团)(伙)(外)(,在)(正)(常)(的)(借)(款)(用)(户)(发)(生)(逾)(期)(后)(,催)(收)(也)(成)(为)(了)(重)(要)(的)(一)(环)(。“在)(发)(生)(欠)(款)(逾)(期)(后)(,一)(般)(前)(几)(天)(是)(效)(果)(最)(好)(的)(,时)(间)(越)(长)(,借)(款)(人)(还)(款)(的)(概)(率)(就)(越)(低)(。”一)(位)(现)(金)(贷)(公)(司)(贷)(后)(催)(收)(经)(理)(称)(。
  高)(息)(费)(争)(议)(
  市)(场)(逐)(渐)(接)(受)(了)(现)(金)(贷)(,但)(现)(金)(贷)(面)(临)(的)(争)(论)(也)(越)(来)(越)(多)(,高)(息)(费)(率)(首)(当)(其)(冲)(的)(成)(为)(了)(争)(议)(的)(焦)(点)(。
  有)(舆)(论)(用)(“嗜)(血)(”来)(形)(容)(,质)(疑)(其)(过)(高)(的)(借)(款)(成)(本)(。许)(多)(平)(台)(也)(不)(断)(遭)(到)(用)(户)(的)(投)(诉)(,称)(息)(费)(率)(过)(高)(,有)(高)(利)(贷)(之)(嫌)(。
  而)(业)(界)(则)(强)(调)(现)(金)(贷)(不)(可)(忽)(视)(的)(社)(会)(性)(及)(运)(营)(现)(金)(贷)(业)(务)(本)(身)(巨)(大)(的)(成)(本)(和)(坏)(账)(风)(险)(;学)(者)(们)(亦)(对)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(争)(端)(看)(法)(不)(一)(。
  著)(名)(学)(者)(巴)(曙)(松)(的)(一)(份)(研)(究)(报)(告)(中)(提)(出)(,PaydayLoan就)(其)(本)(质)(而)(言)(,主)(要)(是)(面)(向)(低)(收)(入)(人)(群)(的)(高)(利)(息)(小)(额)(借)(贷)(,这)(种)(产)(品)(古)(已)(有)(之)(,从)(莎)(士)(比)(亚)(名)(作)(《威)(尼)(斯)(商)(人)(》开)(始)(,即)(面)(临)(着)(巨)(大)(的)(争)(议)(。英)(美)(国)(家)(的)(Pay-dayLoan前)(期)(发)(展)(阶)(段)(中)(也)(面)(临)(着)(巨)(大)(的)(道)(德)(争)(议)(,一)(方)(面)(帮)(助)(了)(低)(收)(入)(人)(群)(渡)(过)(难)(关)(,另)(一)(方)(面)(又)(加)(重)(了)(他)(们)(的)(偿)(债)(负)(担)(。
  快)(速)(发)(展)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(业)(务)(及)(其)(高)(息)(费)(问)(题)(亦)(引)(来)(了)(监)(管)(层)(的)(注)(意)(,现)(金)(贷)(也)(因)(此)(成)(为)(了)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(整)(顿)(的)(重)(点)(领)(域)(。
  2017年)(4月)(10日)(,银)(监)(会)(发)(布)(了)(《中)(国)(银)(监)(会)(关)(于)(银)(行)(业)(风)(险)(防)(控)(工)(作)(的)(指)(导)(意)(见)(》(简)(称)(《指)(导)(意)(见)(》),其)(中)(第)(二)(十)(九)(要)(求)(:做)(好)(“现)(金)(贷)(”业)(务)(活)(动)(的)(清)(理)(整)(顿)(工)(作)(。其)(中)(,《指)(导)(文)(件)(》明)(确)(要)(求)(应)(严)(格)(执)(行)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(关)(于)(民)(间)(借)(贷)(利)(率)(的)(有)(关)(规)(定)(,不)(得)(违)(法)(高)(利)(放)(贷)(及)(暴)(力)(催)(收)(。按)(照)(我)(国)(相)(关)(法)(律)(规)(定)(,“年)(利)(率)(36%”成)(为)(了)(一)(条)(红)(线)(,超)(过)(部)(分)(将)(不)(受)(法)(律)(保)(护)(。监)(管)(层)(更)(列)(出)(了)(618家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(排)(查)(名)(单)(,除)(此)(之)(外)(,文)(件)(中)(明)(确)(提)(示)(“排)(查)(名)(单)(不)(限)(于)(上)(述)(机)(构)(”。
  “年)(利)(率)(36%”的)(红)(线)(对)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(来)(说)(有)(些)(遥)(不)(可)(及)(。
  “如)(果)(按)(照)(所)(有)(成)(本)(不)(超)(过)(年)(利)(率)(36%来)(执)(行)(,可)(以)(说)(现)(金)(贷)(这)(个)(行)(业)(基)(本)(就)(不)(存)(在)(了)(。”掌)(众)(金)(服)(首)(席)(战)(略)(官)(谭)(淳)(直)(言)(。
  他)(认)(为)(,从)(现)(实)(来)(看)(,动)(辄)(高)(至)(600%的)(年)(化)(利)(率)(肯)(定)(是)(不)(合)(理)(的)(,但)(应)(该)(来)(说)(也)(很)(难)(低)(于)(36%的)(红)(线)(,应)(该)(考)(虑)(到)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(实)(际)(上)(在)(获)(取)(用)(户)(征)(信)(数)(据)(等)(方)(面)(也)(都)(是)(有)(直)(接)(的)(成)(本)(支)(出)(,所)(以)(并)(不)(应)(该)(把)(用)(户)(所)(有)(的)(成)(本)(都)(看)(作)(是)(利)(息)(。
  信)(而)(富)(创)(始)(人)(王)(征)(宇)(也)(公)(开)(表)(示)(,作)(为)(短)(期)(小)(额)(信)(贷)(,现)(金)(贷)(也)(不)(能)(用)(所)(谓)(的)(单)(位)(价)(格)(来)(算)(,因)(为)(其)(操)(作)(成)(本)(与)(借)(款)(本)(金)(的)(比)(率)(不)(可)(忽)(略)(。一)(单)(10000元)(的)(贷)(款)(,交)(易)(费)(用)(大)(概)(一)(两)(块)(钱)(,可)(以)(忽)(略)(不)(计)(;而)(一)(单)(500元)(贷)(款)(的)(一)(两)(元)(的)(交)(易)(和)(服)(务)(成)(本)(,就)(不)(能)(不)(计)(算)(。
  据)(记)(者)(了)(解)(,在)(银)(监)(会)(整)(顿)(现)(金)(贷)(政)(策)(发)(布)(后)(,各)(地)(金)(融)(办)(都)(对)(辖)(区)(内)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(进)(行)(了)(摸)(底)(,但)(并)(未)(直)(接)(限)(制)(这)(些)(平)(台)(的)(业)(务)(开)(展)(,而)(业)(内)(众)(多)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(也)(都)(通)(过)(各)(种)(方)(式)(与)(监)(管)(层)(进)(行)(了)(沟)(通)(,诸)(多)(业)(内)(人)(士)(的)(共)(识)(是)(监)(管)(层)(很)(难)(完)(全)(对)(现)(金)(贷)(进)(行)(一)(刀)(切)(。
  而)(为)(了)(规)(避)(政)(策)(风)(险)(,不)(少)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(都)(把)(利)(息)(和)(申)(请)(费)(用)(分)(别)(计)(算)(,以)(免)(被)(套)(上)(高)(利)(贷)(的)(标)(签)(。“未)(来)(我)(们)(也)(可)(能)(会)(通)(过)(和)(外)(部)(保)(险)(公)(司)(合)(作)(,比)(如)(用)(户)(来)(申)(请)(借)(款)(时)(需)(要)(首)(先)(从)(我)(们)(指)(定)(的)(保)(险)(公)(司)(处)(购)(买)(一)(份)(履)(约)(保)(险)(;再)(比)(如)(,我)(们)(也)(可)(以)(把)(我)(们)(的)(数)(据)(部)(门)(独)(立)(出)(去)(,用)(户)(在)(申)(请)(借)(款)(前)(需)(要)(单)(独)(支)(付)(一)(笔)(信)(用)(评)(估)(费)(之)(类)(的)(费)(用)(,这)(些)(都)(可)(以)(变)(相)(绕)(开)(36%的)(监)(管)(红)(线)(,但)(这)(样)(只)(会)(使)(用)(户)(承)(担)(更)(多)(的)(成)(本)(。”一)(位)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(人)(士)(称)(。
  被)(现)(金)(贷)(业)(界)(拿)(来)(引)(用)(的)(是)(中)(国)(人)(民)(银)(行)(原)(副)(行)(长)(、国)(家)(外)(管)(局)(原)(局)(长)(的)(一)(个)(观)(点)(:“对)(于)(低)(收)(入)(人)(群)(有)(融)(资)(的)(机)(会)(远)(比)(融)(资)(价)(格)(重)(要)(”。
  清)(华)(大)(学)(五)(道)(口)(金)(融)(学)(院)(常)(务)(副)(院)(长)(廖)(理)(分)(享)(了)(他)(从)(一)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(获)(得)(的)(客)(户)(留)(言)(。“父)(亲)(失)(踪)(,母)(亲)(住)(院)(,正)(在)(经)(历)(人)(生)(中)(最)(艰)(难)(的)(时)(候)(,感)(谢)(你)(的)(平)(台)(给)(我)(安)(全)(感)(。”廖)(理)(表)(示)(,这)(说)(明)(现)(金)(贷)(在)(国)(内)(是)(有)(市)(场)(的)(,的)(确)(改)(善)(了)(一)(部)(分)(人)(的)(福)(利)(,但)(是)(其)(同)(时)(带)(来)(了)(恶)(意)(催)(收)(、过)(度)(消)(费)(的)(问)(题)(。对)(现)(金)(贷)(的)(监)(管)(政)(策)(应)(该)(引)(导)(产)(品)(改)(善)(设)(计)(,解)(决)(陷)(入)(财)(务)(困)(境)(人)(士)(的)(燃)(眉)(之)(急)(,而)(不)(是)(一)(刀)(切)(。
  王)(征)(宇)(则)(认)(为)(,现)(金)(贷)(行)(业)(确)(实)(存)(在)(费)(率)(过)(高)(、砍)(头)(息)(等)(行)(业)(乱)(象)(,亟)(待)(整)(顿)(。但)(监)(管)(的)(思)(路)(需)(要)(进)(一)(步)(清)(晰)(和)(明)(确)(,费)(率)(太)(高)(使)(得)(弱)(势)(群)(体)(无)(法)(获)(得)(合)(理)(的)(信)(贷)(服)(务)(,以)(“趁)(火)(打)(劫)(”的)(方)(式)(赚)(取)(高)(额)(利)(息)(,是)(不)(对)(的)(;同)(时)(,用)(大)(额)(长)(期)(借)(贷)(利)(率)(的)(标)(准)(来)(套)(用)(现)(金)(贷)(,也)(不)(合)(理)(,“两)(端)(都)(要)(想)(清)(楚)(”。
  而)(另)(一)(些)(业)(界)(的)(人)(则)(相)(信)(通)(过)(市)(场)(化)(的)(手)(段)(亦)(能)(达)(到)(现)(金)(贷)(整)(体)(降)(低)(息)(费)(率)(的)(效)(果)(。
  随)(手)(科)(技)(创)(始)(人)(兼)(CEO谷)(风)(便)(认)(为)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(越)(来)(越)(多)(,一)(定)(会)(导)(致)(行)(业)(竞)(争)(更)(加)(剧)(,而)(风)(控)(等)(运)(营)(能)(力)(更)(有)(优)(势)(的)(平)(台)(便)(能)(提)(供)(更)(低)(的)(利)(率)(以)(吸)(引)(优)(质)(用)(户)(,通)(过)(行)(业)(自)(身)(的)(优)(胜)(劣)(汰)(也)(会)(达)(到)(驱)(逐)(“劣)(币)(”的)(效)(果)(。他)(认)(为)(,现)(在)(出)(现)(的)(各)(种)(贷)(款)(超)(市)(平)(台)(一)(定)(程)(度)(上)(也)(能)(帮)(助)(用)(户)(找)(到)(成)(本)(更)(低)(的)(贷)(款)(平)(台)(,平)(台)(用)(户)(有)(了)(更)(充)(分)(的)(选)(择)(,降)(低)(了)(贷)(款)(人)(由)(于)(信)(息)(不)(对)(称)(而)(被)(迫)(选)(择)(高)(息)(产)(品)(的)(困)(境)(。随)(手)(科)(技)(旗)(下)(的)(卡)(牛)(信)(用)(卡)(管)(家)(也)(在)(去)(年)(推)(出)(了)(贷)(款)(超)(市)(类)(产)(品)(。“毋)(庸)(置)(疑)(,我)(们)(整)(体)(的)(息)(费)(率)(都)(是)(在)(往)(下)(走)(的)(。对)(于)(平)(台)(上)(信)(用)(好)(的)(老)(客)(户)(,我)(们)(也)(在)(不)(断)(提)(供)(了)(更)(低)(的)(息)(费)(率)(降)(低)(他)(们)(的)(借)(款)(成)(本)(。”谭)(淳)(称)(。
  风)(险)(疑)(虑)(
  如)(今)(,摆)(在)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(面)(前)(的)(除)(了)(上)(述)(高)(息)(费)(的)(质)(疑)(和)(监)(管)(的)(压)(力)(外)(,竞)(争)(加)(剧)(、系)(统)(性)(风)(险)(等)(疑)(虑)(也)(逐)(渐)(出)(现)(。
  过)(去)(两)(年)(,线)(上)(贷)(款)(app集)(中)(爆)(发)(,手)(机)(应)(用)(商)(店)(搜)(索)(“贷)(款)(”,出)(现)(的)(贷)(款)(app已)(经)(有)(上)(千)(家)(之)(多)(,“千)(贷)(大)(战)(”愈)(演)(愈)(烈)(,现)(金)(贷)(渐)(渐)(进)(入)(到)(红)(海)(。一)(个)(最)(显)(著)(的)(变)(化)(是)(,获)(客)(成)(本)(的)(迅)(速)(攀)(升)(。
  一)(家)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(负)(责)(人)(称)(,去)(年)(此)(时)(获)(得)(一)(个)(放)(款)(用)(户)(的)(成)(本)(平)(均)(只)(有)(20-30元)(,但)(目)(前)(已)(经)(大)(幅)(上)(涨)(,而)(且)(每)(月)(每)(天)(价)(格)(都)(在)(变)(化)(。
  刘)(思)(宇)(称)(,目)(前)(行)(业)(获)(客)(成)(本)((以)(完)(成)(放)(款)(计)()大)(概)(是)(70-200元)(不)(等)(。
  这)(意)(味)(着)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(首)(笔)(借)(款)(基)(本)(上)(是)(不)(赚)(钱)(的)(,只)(有)(依)(靠)(复)(贷)(率)(才)(能)(确)(保)(后)(期)(的)(收)(益)(。现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(相)(信)(,由)(于)(用)(户)(的)(需)(求)(并)(不)(是)(只)(有)(一)(次)(性)(的)(,所)(以)(后)(期)(这)(些)(用)(户)(有)(反)(复)(借)(款)(的)(需)(求)(,因)(此)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(都)(将)(希)(望)(寄)(托)(在)(了)(这)(些)(用)(户)(后)(续)(的)(借)(款)(需)(求)(上)(,而)(行)(业)(这)(一)(数)(字)(大)(概)(是)(70%。
  但)(这)(更)(是)(带)(来)(了)(对)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(大)(量)(借)(款)(人)(都)(是)(在)(借)(新)(还)(旧)(的)(担)(忧)(。
  互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(行)(业)(知)(名)(投)(资)(人)(江)(南)(愤)(青)(便)(认)(为)(,有)(的)(机)(构)(续)(贷)(率)(高)(,但)(也)(许)(里)(面)(有)(问)(题)(,因)(为)(逾)(期)(率)(和)(续)(贷)(率)(可)(能)(直)(接)(挂)(钩)(。如)(果)(市)(场)(调)(研)(发)(现)(,逾)(期)(予)(以)(续)(贷)(则)(逾)(期)(率)(不)(高)(,而)(逾)(期)(不)(予)(续)(贷)(则)(逾)(期)(率)(就)(高)(,说)(明)(是)(借)(新)(还)(旧)(的)(庞)(氏)(骗)(局)(。
  但)(刘)(思)(宇)(称)(,多)(头)(借)(贷)(和)(借)(新)(还)(旧)(是)(现)(金)(贷)(行)(业)(都)(知)(道)(的)(客)(观)(事)(实)(,但)(在)(他)(看)(来)(,即)(便)(如)(此)(,这)(一)(领)(域)(的)(整)(体)(风)(险)(还)(是)(可)(控)(的)(。他)(的)(逻)(辑)(是)(,一)(个)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(往)(往)(能)(借)(给)(用)(户)(的)(资)(金)(只)(有)(1000-2000元)(,虽)(然)(很)(多)(用)(户)(都)(是)(多)(头)(借)(贷)(,但)(实)(际)(上)(能)(够)(同)(时)(从)(5家)(平)(台)(获)(得)(借)(款)(的)(可)(能)(性)(并)(不)(高)(,以)(此)(计)(算)(,单)(个)(用)(户)(的)(负)(债)(规)(模)(也)(就)(仅)(仅)(只)(有)(1万)(元)(左)(右)(。“从)(我)(们)(的)(情)(况)(来)(看)(,现)(金)(贷)(的)(用)(户)(中)(绝)(大)(部)(分)(都)(是)(有)(工)(作)(的)(,即)(便)(按)(照)(他)(们)(最)(低)(收)(入)(2000-3000元)(/月)(来)(计)(算)(,考)(虑)(到)(有)(收)(入)(,因)(此)(整)(体)(的)(风)(险)(并)(不)(会)(特)(别)(严)(重)(。”
  即)(便)(如)(此)(,另)(一)(个)(不)(可)(忽)(视)(的)(问)(题)(是)(,在)(赚)(钱)(效)(应)(的)(刺)(激)(下)(,疯)(狂)(涌)(入)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(愈)(来)(愈)(多)(,竞)(争)(的)(逐)(渐)(白)(热)(化)(亦)(让)(大)(量)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(业)(务)(的)(可)(持)(续)(性)(带)(来)(了)(隐)(忧)(。对)(于)(一)(些)(拥)(有)(获)(客)(、资)(金)(、风)(控)(等)(核)(心)(优)(势)(的)(平)(台)(来)(说)(,在)(获)(得)(了)(大)(量)(用)(户)(积)(累)(后)(,转)(型)(和)(生)(存)(都)(是)(相)(对)(容)(易)(的)(。而)(对)(于)(大)(量)(中)(小)(型)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(而)(言)(,市)(场)(竞)(争)(的)(加)(剧)(以)(及)(监)(管)(的)(压)(力)(都)(会)(对)(其)(未)(来)(带)(来)(重)(重)(挑)(战)(。
  而)(对)(于)(一)(批)(已)(经)(实)(现)(野)(蛮)(生)(长)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(来)(说)(,在)(有)(了)(大)(量)(基)(础)(用)(户)(积)(累)(后)(,亦)(希)(望)(通)(过)(提)(升)(资)(本)(实)(力)(等)(方)(式)(建)(立)(自)(身)(的)(竞)(争)(壁)(垒)(。事)(实)(上)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(的)(第)(一)(梯)(队)(者)(几)(乎)(都)(已)(经)(获)(得)(了)(创)(投)(机)(构)(的)(青)(睐)(。
  如)(手)(机)(贷)(早)(就)(获)(得)(了)(红)(杉)(资)(本)(、蓝)(湖)(资)(本)(资)(本)(的)(投)(资)(,掌)(众)(金)(融)(去)(年)(被)(网)(信)(集)(团)(以)(8亿)(元)(的)(价)(格)(收)(购)(了)(其)(48%的)(股)(份)(。在)(今)(年)(年)(初)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(更)(是)(掀)(起)(了)(一)(阵)(融)(资)(热)(潮)(,闪)(银)(奇)(异)(获)(得)(了)(招)(商)(局)(创)(投)(等)(数)(家)(机)(构)(8000万)(美)(元)(投)(资)(,魔)(法)(现)(金)(在)(不)(久)(前)(也)(获)(得)(了)(经)(纬)(中)(国)(数)(千)(万)(美)(元)(的)(投)(资)(,2月)(,“现)(金)(卡)(”完)(成)(数)(千)(万)(元)(A轮)(融)(资)(;3月)(,用)(钱)(宝)(拿)(到)(创)(新)(工)(场)(等)(C轮)(4.66亿)(元)(融)(资)(;4月)(,明)(特)(量)(化)(完)(成)(1亿)(元)(B轮)(融)(资)(。
  现)(金)(贷)(成)(了)(业)(内)(公)(认)(的)(科)(技)(金)(融)((Fintech)的)(新)(“风)(口)(”。短)(短)(三)(个)(月)(内)(,资)(本)(急)(速)(向)(这)(个)(细)(分)(的)(信)(贷)(市)(场)(涌)(入)(,融)(资)(金)(额)(一)(家)(比)(一)(家)(大)(,创)(新)(工)(厂)(、华)(创)(、晨)(兴)(等)(多)(家)(一)(线)(风)(投)(机)(构)(都)(已)(出)(手)(投)(资)(现)(金)(贷)(企)(业)(。
  不)(过)(,这)(融)(资)(潮)(在)(监)(管)(层)(整)(顿)(现)(金)(贷)(新)(政)(中)(戛)(然)(而)(止)(。刘)(思)(宇)(便)(称)(,他)(就)(有)(听)(说)(某)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(本)(来)(已)(经)(获)(得)(了)(投)(资)(机)(构)(的)(投)(资)(意)(向)(,由)(于)(政)(策)(出)(台)(而)(马)(上)(转)(变)(态)(度)(。
  事)(实)(上)(,即)(便)(当)(前)(获)(利)(能)(力)(极)(强)(,但)(摆)(在)(这)(些)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(面)(前)(的)(并)(不)(是)(IPO的)(康)(庄)(大)(道)(。
  国)(内)(一)(位)(知)(名)(PE机)(构)(的)(投)(资)(人)(透)(露)(,该)(机)(构)(此)(前)(也)(对)(现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(进)(行)(过)(调)(研)(,但)(最)(终)(决)(定)(不)(在)(这)(个)(行)(业)(进)(行)(投)(资)(,一)(个)(重)(要)(的)(原)(因)(便)(是)(,现)(金)(贷)(平)(台)(身)(上)(高)(利)(贷)(的)(标)(签)(或)(多)(或)(少)(会)(存)(在)(道)(德)(争)(议)(,很)(难)(通)(过)(IPO的)(方)(式)(实)(现)(资)(本)(化)(,这)(将)(极)(大)(的)(影)(响)(投)(资)(退)(出)(回)(报)(。
  而)(当)(前)(国)(内)(资)(本)(市)(场)(环)(境)(下)(,在)(互)(联)(网)(金)(融)(类)(企)(业)(被)(严)(格)(限)(制)(,监)(管)(层)(态)(度)(不)(明)(朗)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,被)(并)(购)(退)(出)(也)(面)(临)(巨)(大)(的)(挑)(战)(。绕)(道)(海)(外)(上)(市)(又)(难)(以)(有)(理)(想)(的)(估)(值)(水)(平)(。这)(些)(退)(出)(方)(面)(的)(难)(题)(,让)(机)(构)(投)(资)(者)(们)(已)(经)(大)(幅)(放)(缓)(了)(投)(资)(的)(步)(伐)(。“在)(我)(收)(到)(的)(现)(金)(贷)(融)(资)(商)(业)(计)(划)(书)(中)(,大)(家)(都)(不)(约)(而)(同)(的)(描)(绘)(出)(了)(一)(个)(宏)(伟)(的)(蓝)(图)(:中)(国)(在)(20岁)(到)(60岁)(之)(间)(的)(人)(口)(大)(约)(有)(9亿)(的)(水)(平)(,但)(是)(中)(国)(持)(有)(信)(用)(卡)(的)(人)(数)(不)(到)(2亿)(,还)(有)(大)(概)(7亿)(的)(人)(口)(,在)(这)(个)(年)(龄)(阶)(段)(是)(没)(有)(享)(受)(到)(金)(融)(服)(务)(的)(,这)(是)(一)(个)(非)(常)(巨)(大)(的)(市)(场)(。”上)(述)(PE机)(构)(投)(资)(人)(。
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